Businesses may have more than profit on their mind when they look at circular economy

Current business support guidance may be missing opportunities to engage companies with circular economy practices by assuming that business managers and owners are solely motivated by money.

Westminster Energy, Environment and Transport forum: British infrastructure not ready for circular economy

The Resource Recovery from Waste programme has a vision of a high value circular economy that delivers clean growth, a better environment and social benefits such as skills and jobs. We work closely with our partners in government and business to turn this vision into action.

A high value circular economy should retain the economic, environmental and social value of materials by preserving their technical qualities rather than losing them in combustion. To achieve this, we need to have the right infrastructure in place. The Resource Recovery from Waste review of existing and planned waste and recovery infrastructure in the UK found that it is certainly not ready to support the circular economy, and neither is it likely to be without radical government intervention.

At the Westminster Energy, Environment and Transport forum “Priorities for UK waste and recycling policy and developing the circular economy” on 18 January 2018, Lee Davies (Defra) argued that better data is needed to underpin a circular, resource efficient network; however, Andy Rees (Welsh Government) described how collection of such data remains a challenge. Better data on the flows, volumes and qualities of recycled materials is needed to support secondary resource markets. This will reduce risk and enable confident investment in infrastructure. It also enables risk sharing throughout the supply chain. This is crucial because as Marcus Gover (WRAP) explained, we need to consider production, consumption and recycling holistically. Promoting circular supply chains requires data on material flows in production and consumption, as well as downstream processing. It also means adopting new metrics that describe the technical qualities of material flows, not just their tonnage.

Policy and regulation in support of resource productivity are expected to change, as highlighted by Ian Boyd (Defra) and Libby Peake (Green Alliance) at the recent Resource Recovery from Waste conference. The development of coherent government initiatives such as the Industrial Strategy, Clean Growth Plan, 25 Year Environment Plan, and forthcoming Resource and Waste Strategy helps clarify the direction of travel, as expressed at the forum by Nadeem Arshad (Bevan Brittan). The repeated ambition for a circular, low-carbon economy expressed in these is positive. Now the Government needs to translate the plans into actions. It must provide detail in the National Infrastructure Plan of how the necessary reuse, recycling and recovery infrastructure to support a circular economy will be put in place. This is particularly important for the critical materials required by the technology that will enable a low-carbon economy, of which we are 100% importers. While future innovation will be needed, as Lee Davies stated in his response to this note, immediate action should be taken to balance investment into circular economy infrastructure. Currently, 80% of funded waste infrastructure projects are for energy recovery; part of the budget must be redirected towards infrastructure that supports e.g. repair, remanufacturing, recycling and recovery.

Resource Recovery from Waste has been awarded with a NERC Policy Impact grant to increase collaboration with government. Read more about this new project in our latest newsletter, and get in touch for further details and explore how we can work together.

A globe moves toward a greener closed loop representing a Circular Economy

Solving the paradox of resource scarcity and waste overload

The world is currently suffering from the double whammy of limited resources being over exploited, whilst at the same time an estimated 22 billion tonnes of waste is generated every year – roughly 4 tonnes per person.  This paradox could in part be solved by moving to a circular economy, where resources are recovered and reused instead of being disposed of as waste. However, movement in this direction has been slow. In a new open-access article recently published in the Sustainability journal, RRfW Coordinator Anne Velenturf and leading academic Phil Purnell from the University of Leeds set out how the Resource Recovery from Waste (RRfW) programme is addressing this problem. They argue that academia is well placed to contribute to the advances in science, technology and economic models needed for a truly circular economy. However, in order for research to effectively contribute to the required paradigm shift it must first engage with interested groups at all levels through a process of participatory action research.

Waste and resource management will be key to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Out of 17 goals, 12 directly contain targets to improve waste and resource managements. The various targets proposed will require far-reaching changes for both industry and society. However, these changes will be necessary in order to stay within the planetary boundaries. The paper identifies nine planetary boundaries, which give the ‘safe operating space’ for humanity. Of these, four boundaries have already been crossed – for climate change, excess crop fertilisers, loss of biodiversity and land use. The ways in which resources are extracted, produced, used and wasted are all contributing to the rate at which we are crossing these planetary boundaries. Transforming waste and resource management must play a key part in changing these self-destructive pathways.

The current way of thinking about waste and resource flows is linear, with resources being extracted or grown, processed into products, consumed and then wasted. In contrast, the UK’s Waste and Resources Action Programme defines a circular economy approach as one that would:

“keep resources in use as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life”

Moving to a circular economy would have multiple benefits, for example, reducing demand for extracting new resources would also reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. But to increase circularity, the focus needs to move from just ‘end-of-pipe’ treatments to include changes at the product design and manufacturing stages. Products must be brought to market that are more amenable to being reused, dismantled and / or recycled. In addition, all stages of the supply chains need to be redesigned to prevent the technical, environmental, social and economic value of materials from leaking into waste at any point of the product life cycle. In order to deliver such a shift in thinking, we need to engage people at all levels from designers, manufacturers, consumers, waste processers to politicians, regulators and NGOs who can support markets and drive changes in behaviour.

One approach to engage multiple groups of people at across multiple areas is to use participatory governance. This involves an engagement process that can range from informing, to listening, consulting, co-producing, co-deciding and full autonomy. There are many advantages to this approach, including bringing a diversity of viewpoints and expertise to identify and solve particular problems, and generating greater commitment and impact. The academic community can adapt these techniques through participatory action research, with the aim of both bringing about societal change and contributing to scientific progress. This approach has been adopted on the RRfW programme and the paper outlines our strategy for this. By engaging with people and organisations from across the resource and waste area, we have been able to get our research to where it is needed and, in the process, identify and tackle new needs. As this approach runs through the core of the programme, it is still on-going. This autumn will see a further four participatory knowledge exchange workshops and our annual meeting for 2017 will open the debate as to how we can make the business case for resource recovery.

The full paper on which this article is based can be found here:

Anne Velenturf and Phil Purnell (2017) “Resource Recovery from Waste: Restoring the Balance between Resource Scarcity and Waste Overload” Sustainability 9 (9), 1603; doi:10.3390/su9091603 Open Access.

Circular Economy Driving International Sustainable Development Research

By Anne Velenturf, Pauline Deutz and Andrea Cecchin

The International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) held a very successful annual conference last week in Bogotá, Colombia. With over 200 presentations from every corner of the world and 9 key notes plus a welcome by the President of Colombia and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Juan Manuel Santos, the conference reflected the diversity and crucial role of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for environmental health, peace keeping and the circular economy.

The circular economy continues to be a popular topic for ISDRS. A special track on Circular Economy, Industrial Ecology (resource management and sustainable regional economic development) included 12 presentations on this subject. Additionally, other sessions contained 5 presentations on circular economy while there were a further 15 talks on waste and resource management and/or sustainable production and consumption.

The fact that the circular economy and sustainable waste and resource management resonated throughout the ISDRS conference should not be a surprise. Analysis of the UN SDGs show that 12 of the 17 goals contain targets to improve waste and resource management directly, excluding targets on for example education, policy and finance which can indirectly enhance sustainable waste and resource management. The global goals on affordable and clean energy, clean water and sanitation, and life below water and on land contain the highest proportions of targets aiming to alter waste and resource flows in our economy. Overall the UN SDGs propose far-reaching changes for industry.

Image source: Anne Velenturf et al. (2017) Co-producing a Vision and Approach for the Transition towards a Circular Economy: Perspectives from Government Partners. Presentation at ISDRS 14-16 June Bogotá, Colombia.

This emphasises the importance of circular economy and industrial ecology for sustainable development. Presentations at the ISDRS conference indicated, however, that circularity cannot be a dogma because it might not be the best strategy for achieving resource efficiency or sustainability at all times. Instead, we need to consider circular economy in the broader perspective of sustainable development.

Circular economy presentations at the ISDRS included both developing and developed country perspectives. In both cases the construction industry is an area of concern, given the scale of waste produced, but especially noting the continuing rate of urbanisation in developing countries such as Colombia. Additionally, in the context of developing countries the informal economy tends to play a significant role (both in waste management and construction).

Other talks indicated that there is a need to develop approaches fostering circular practices, such as industrial symbiosis, which reach beyond large companies. Context needs to be considered in industrial symbiosis evolution, with different pathways illustrated for urban and rural settings. Pathways are also likely to differ in developed and developing countries due to different socioeconomic and political conditions.

Such differences highlight the need for a flexible framework and specific implementation strategies for developed and developing countries. A common framework for circular economy does not exist yet, not least since various current frameworks propose different visions of sustainability. These differences are also reflected in the confusing range of terms used in circular economy discourse, as precise terminology is yet to be established.

Image source: Denise Reike, Walter Vermeulen and Sjors Witjes (2017) The circular economy: New or Refurbished as CE 3.0? – Exploring Controversies in the Conceptualisation of the Circular Economy through a Focus on History and Resource Retention Options. Presentation at ISDRS 14-16 June Bogotá, Colombia.

Engagement with policy makers is also important to steer both the design and implementation of regulations, as was illustrated by case studies from tyre recycling and mining of legacy waste. A further presentation emphasised policy makers can be receptive to academic engagement, with an on-going two-way process of exchange the ideal way to manage this.

A lively discussion after the talks summarised suggestions for further circular economy and industrial ecology research:

  • Social aspects related to circular economy
  • Circular business models and business model innovation
  • The role of participatory approaches as an essential part of implementing circular economies
  • The socio-political implications and possibilities of shifting current production-consumption-use-waste practices
  • The role of economic cycles in the adoption of a circular economy framework in national economies and industries
  • Further research the role of geographic proximity in the establishment of industrial symbiosis
  • Investigate the influence of geographical context on resource exchange networks
  • Investigate the role and contribution of private brokers and governmental facilitators to foster industrial symbiosis
  • Research to integrate urban symbiosis with industrial symbiosis
  • Investigate the adoption of circular economy models for the construction sector, especially in developing countries with higher population growth in urban areas
  • The role and contribution of the informal economy when designing and implementing a circular economy framework in developing countries
  • The role of formal and informal institutions (for example regulation and the presence of collaborative culture respectively), also in relation to the implementation of law enforcement
  • Adoption of circular practices by SMEs

We look forward to contributions to continue the debate at next year’s ISDRS conference, which will be hosted by the University of Messina, Italy, 13-15 June 2018.

Anne Velenturf is the coordinator of the Resource Recovery from Waste programme at the University of Leeds and managing director of 4Innovation Research and Consultancy. Pauline Deutz is a Reader at the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of Hull and vice president of the International Sustainable Development Research Society. Andrea Cecchin is a Fellow at the Archives of Sustainability at Ca’Foscari University of Venice and Project Researcher at Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador.

This article was originally published on LinkedIn on 22nd June 2017