RRfW makes the case for better data to improve circular economy governance

Resource Recovery from Waste has been working with the Office for National Statistics, Defra and BEIS to develop the government use case for the proposed National Materials Datahub.

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Oil rigs in Cromarty Firth, Scotland

New project to apply circular economy to oil and gas decommissioning

Resource Recovery from Waste and Zero Waste Scotland launched an impact project to apply circular economy principles to oil and gas decommissioning.

Cinnamon colored black bear standing on hind legs waving (Shutterstock)

The Resource Recovery from Waste road trip

The day is 9 May 2016. The place is the University of Leeds. I am starting a job managing the sizeable Resource Recovery from Waste programme. As a relative rookie to academia, I am amazed at the opportunity; I am full of ideas, excited to get started and jump right in. I really had no idea what I was getting myself into.

Resource Recovery from Waste created an amazing diversity of research projects. It brings together mavericks sitting at the edges of various research council remits. Network theory claims that ideas persist at the heart of a network; change is driven from the fringes. Uniting voices from far corners into a harmonious concert that can reach a wider audience is not an easy task though.

Our programme has a brilliant, lovely, yet rebellious coordination team bringing together the PIs and coordinators of our six main projects. We organise a ‘jam’ and the band start to patch together a shared vision and mission. And while Phil drums the Resource Recovery from Waste mantra, I set up the rest of the stage. First a decorum of ecosystem stewardship, planetary boundaries and human rights. Then the voices, a cacophony of metal recovery, organic wastes, wastewaters, land remediation and catalysts made from recovered materials topped with a complex story about multi-dimensional values. We write and rewrite our first song at least four times, but at last it gets launched and includes our engagement strategy to involve existing and new partners in governmental bodies and companies to deliver change.

In the meantime I am on a continuous promotional road trip, meeting our audience far and wide. A memorable first annual conference bringing together the full band and our audience. Then our first policy gig playing our song to those in power. A series of seemingly endless meetings, conferences, presentations, workshops and network gatherings goes on and on… I develop an intricate knowledge of the British rail system, taking in the weekly ‘Top Ten’ of cancellation excuses; find standard hangout spots in every corner of the country; and the side effects of generous catering policies settle on my waistline – after all, food waste cannot be accepted under any circumstances!

Through all the conversations a clear picture of the circular economy aspirations within our network emerges. I am humbled and grateful for the collaborations with and within Resource Recovery from Waste. Somewhere in this work-jumble, a series of cross-programme mini-projects come to fruition and spur on our momentum to deliver change. The funders notice our impact and the Resource Recovery from Waste concert is signed to perform an encore performance.

We professionalise our communications. We redraw our objectives. The pathways to achieve our outcomes become clearer. And while our projects start to wind down, the coordination team grows with Juliet doing magic with our digital looks and events, and Rachel joining later as a policy impact fellow – she knows how to strike a chord with our policy contacts! Researchers from across our projects are collaborating freely and without needing a programme coordinator chasing them anymore; Ana, Alfonso and Lynne our champion conductors here.

A colourful, weird and wonderful Resource Recovery from Waste family has grown. The impact machine hums in top gear and I start to feel sleepy. I open a window to let in a breeze of fresh air and it whispers about a new gig in Penryn. I decide to take a look. I like it – a lot. Helping companies to make their business models more circular and in tune with the environment. I am sad to leave Resource Recovery from Waste but, let’s face it, my job is done. I accept the position as industrial impact fellow on the Environmental Growth for Business project at the University of Exeter and move by 9 July. I leave the programme coordination and impact delivery in the safe hands of Juliet, Rachel and band leader, Phil.

Thank you for all your support, ideas, collaboration and hard work. It has been an amazing, mad and at times hilarious roller coaster of a couple of years and I am grateful that you let me write and play the Resource Recovery from Waste messages with you! Keep up the good work, build toward that crescendo and your finale. I am sure you will recognise the groupie with the pocket full of used rail tickets and the bag of doughnuts in the front row!

Westminster Energy, Environment and Transport forum: British infrastructure not ready for circular economy

The Resource Recovery from Waste programme has a vision of a high value circular economy that delivers clean growth, a better environment and social benefits such as skills and jobs. We work closely with our partners in government and business to turn this vision into action.

A high value circular economy should retain the economic, environmental and social value of materials by preserving their technical qualities rather than losing them in combustion. To achieve this, we need to have the right infrastructure in place. The Resource Recovery from Waste review of existing and planned waste and recovery infrastructure in the UK found that it is certainly not ready to support the circular economy, and neither is it likely to be without radical government intervention.

At the Westminster Energy, Environment and Transport forum “Priorities for UK waste and recycling policy and developing the circular economy” on 18 January 2018, Lee Davies (Defra) argued that better data is needed to underpin a circular, resource efficient network; however, Andy Rees (Welsh Government) described how collection of such data remains a challenge. Better data on the flows, volumes and qualities of recycled materials is needed to support secondary resource markets. This will reduce risk and enable confident investment in infrastructure. It also enables risk sharing throughout the supply chain. This is crucial because as Marcus Gover (WRAP) explained, we need to consider production, consumption and recycling holistically. Promoting circular supply chains requires data on material flows in production and consumption, as well as downstream processing. It also means adopting new metrics that describe the technical qualities of material flows, not just their tonnage.

Policy and regulation in support of resource productivity are expected to change, as highlighted by Ian Boyd (Defra) and Libby Peake (Green Alliance) at the recent Resource Recovery from Waste conference. The development of coherent government initiatives such as the Industrial Strategy, Clean Growth Plan, 25 Year Environment Plan, and forthcoming Resource and Waste Strategy helps clarify the direction of travel, as expressed at the forum by Nadeem Arshad (Bevan Brittan). The repeated ambition for a circular, low-carbon economy expressed in these is positive. Now the Government needs to translate the plans into actions. It must provide detail in the National Infrastructure Plan of how the necessary reuse, recycling and recovery infrastructure to support a circular economy will be put in place. This is particularly important for the critical materials required by the technology that will enable a low-carbon economy, of which we are 100% importers. While future innovation will be needed, as Lee Davies stated in his response to this note, immediate action should be taken to balance investment into circular economy infrastructure. Currently, 80% of funded waste infrastructure projects are for energy recovery; part of the budget must be redirected towards infrastructure that supports e.g. repair, remanufacturing, recycling and recovery.

Resource Recovery from Waste has been awarded with a NERC Policy Impact grant to increase collaboration with government. Read more about this new project in our latest newsletter, and get in touch for further details and explore how we can work together.

Representation of a Circular Economy

Solving the paradox of resource scarcity and waste overload

The world is currently suffering from the double whammy of limited resources being over exploited, whilst at the same time an estimated 22 billion tonnes of waste is generated every year – roughly 4 tonnes per person.  This paradox could in part be solved by moving to a circular economy, where resources are recovered and reused instead of being disposed of as waste. However, movement in this direction has been slow. In a new open-access article recently published in the Sustainability journal, RRfW Coordinator Anne Velenturf and leading academic Phil Purnell from the University of Leeds set out how the Resource Recovery from Waste (RRfW) programme is addressing this problem. They argue that academia is well placed to contribute to the advances in science, technology and economic models needed for a truly circular economy. However, in order for research to effectively contribute to the required paradigm shift it must first engage with interested groups at all levels through a process of participatory action research.

Waste and resource management will be key to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Out of 17 goals, 12 directly contain targets to improve waste and resource managements. The various targets proposed will require far-reaching changes for both industry and society. However, these changes will be necessary in order to stay within the planetary boundaries. The paper identifies nine planetary boundaries, which give the ‘safe operating space’ for humanity. Of these, four boundaries have already been crossed – for climate change, excess crop fertilisers, loss of biodiversity and land use. The ways in which resources are extracted, produced, used and wasted are all contributing to the rate at which we are crossing these planetary boundaries. Transforming waste and resource management must play a key part in changing these self-destructive pathways.

The current way of thinking about waste and resource flows is linear, with resources being extracted or grown, processed into products, consumed and then wasted. In contrast, the UK’s Waste and Resources Action Programme defines a circular economy approach as one that would:

“keep resources in use as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life”

Moving to a circular economy would have multiple benefits, for example, reducing demand for extracting new resources would also reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. But to increase circularity, the focus needs to move from just ‘end-of-pipe’ treatments to include changes at the product design and manufacturing stages. Products must be brought to market that are more amenable to being reused, dismantled and / or recycled. In addition, all stages of the supply chains need to be redesigned to prevent the technical, environmental, social and economic value of materials from leaking into waste at any point of the product life cycle. In order to deliver such a shift in thinking, we need to engage people at all levels from designers, manufacturers, consumers, waste processers to politicians, regulators and NGOs who can support markets and drive changes in behaviour.

One approach to engage multiple groups of people at across multiple areas is to use participatory governance. This involves an engagement process that can range from informing, to listening, consulting, co-producing, co-deciding and full autonomy. There are many advantages to this approach, including bringing a diversity of viewpoints and expertise to identify and solve particular problems, and generating greater commitment and impact. The academic community can adapt these techniques through participatory action research, with the aim of both bringing about societal change and contributing to scientific progress. This approach has been adopted on the RRfW programme and the paper outlines our strategy for this. By engaging with people and organisations from across the resource and waste area, we have been able to get our research to where it is needed and, in the process, identify and tackle new needs. As this approach runs through the core of the programme, it is still on-going. This autumn will see a further four participatory knowledge exchange workshops and our annual meeting for 2017 will open the debate as to how we can make the business case for resource recovery.

The full paper on which this article is based can be found here:

Anne Velenturf and Phil Purnell (2017) “Resource Recovery from Waste: Restoring the Balance between Resource Scarcity and Waste Overload” Sustainability 9 (9), 1603; doi:10.3390/su9091603 Open Access.

Circular Economy Driving International Sustainable Development Research

By Anne Velenturf, Pauline Deutz and Andrea Cecchin

The International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) held a very successful annual conference last week in Bogotá, Colombia. With over 200 presentations from every corner of the world and 9 key notes plus a welcome by the President of Colombia and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Juan Manuel Santos, the conference reflected the diversity and crucial role of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for environmental health, peace keeping and the circular economy.

The circular economy continues to be a popular topic for ISDRS. A special track on Circular Economy, Industrial Ecology (resource management and sustainable regional economic development) included 12 presentations on this subject. Additionally, other sessions contained 5 presentations on circular economy while there were a further 15 talks on waste and resource management and/or sustainable production and consumption.

The fact that the circular economy and sustainable waste and resource management resonated throughout the ISDRS conference should not be a surprise. Analysis of the UN SDGs show that 12 of the 17 goals contain targets to improve waste and resource management directly, excluding targets on for example education, policy and finance which can indirectly enhance sustainable waste and resource management. The global goals on affordable and clean energy, clean water and sanitation, and life below water and on land contain the highest proportions of targets aiming to alter waste and resource flows in our economy. Overall the UN SDGs propose far-reaching changes for industry.

Image source: Anne Velenturf et al. (2017) Co-producing a Vision and Approach for the Transition towards a Circular Economy: Perspectives from Government Partners. Presentation at ISDRS 14-16 June Bogotá, Colombia.

This emphasises the importance of circular economy and industrial ecology for sustainable development. Presentations at the ISDRS conference indicated, however, that circularity cannot be a dogma because it might not be the best strategy for achieving resource efficiency or sustainability at all times. Instead, we need to consider circular economy in the broader perspective of sustainable development.

Circular economy presentations at the ISDRS included both developing and developed country perspectives. In both cases the construction industry is an area of concern, given the scale of waste produced, but especially noting the continuing rate of urbanisation in developing countries such as Colombia. Additionally, in the context of developing countries the informal economy tends to play a significant role (both in waste management and construction).

Other talks indicated that there is a need to develop approaches fostering circular practices, such as industrial symbiosis, which reach beyond large companies. Context needs to be considered in industrial symbiosis evolution, with different pathways illustrated for urban and rural settings. Pathways are also likely to differ in developed and developing countries due to different socioeconomic and political conditions.

Such differences highlight the need for a flexible framework and specific implementation strategies for developed and developing countries. A common framework for circular economy does not exist yet, not least since various current frameworks propose different visions of sustainability. These differences are also reflected in the confusing range of terms used in circular economy discourse, as precise terminology is yet to be established.

Image source: Denise Reike, Walter Vermeulen and Sjors Witjes (2017) The circular economy: New or Refurbished as CE 3.0? – Exploring Controversies in the Conceptualisation of the Circular Economy through a Focus on History and Resource Retention Options. Presentation at ISDRS 14-16 June Bogotá, Colombia.

Engagement with policy makers is also important to steer both the design and implementation of regulations, as was illustrated by case studies from tyre recycling and mining of legacy waste. A further presentation emphasised policy makers can be receptive to academic engagement, with an on-going two-way process of exchange the ideal way to manage this.

A lively discussion after the talks summarised suggestions for further circular economy and industrial ecology research:

  • Social aspects related to circular economy
  • Circular business models and business model innovation
  • The role of participatory approaches as an essential part of implementing circular economies
  • The socio-political implications and possibilities of shifting current production-consumption-use-waste practices
  • The role of economic cycles in the adoption of a circular economy framework in national economies and industries
  • Further research the role of geographic proximity in the establishment of industrial symbiosis
  • Investigate the influence of geographical context on resource exchange networks
  • Investigate the role and contribution of private brokers and governmental facilitators to foster industrial symbiosis
  • Research to integrate urban symbiosis with industrial symbiosis
  • Investigate the adoption of circular economy models for the construction sector, especially in developing countries with higher population growth in urban areas
  • The role and contribution of the informal economy when designing and implementing a circular economy framework in developing countries
  • The role of formal and informal institutions (for example regulation and the presence of collaborative culture respectively), also in relation to the implementation of law enforcement
  • Adoption of circular practices by SMEs

We look forward to contributions to continue the debate at next year’s ISDRS conference, which will be hosted by the University of Messina, Italy, 13-15 June 2018.

Anne Velenturf is the coordinator of the Resource Recovery from Waste programme at the University of Leeds and managing director of 4Innovation Research and Consultancy. Pauline Deutz is a Reader at the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of Hull and vice president of the International Sustainable Development Research Society. Andrea Cecchin is a Fellow at the Archives of Sustainability at Ca’Foscari University of Venice and Project Researcher at Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador.

This article was originally published on LinkedIn on 22nd June 2017

Towards a shared vision for waste and resource management (2): Policy and regulatory approaches

The Resource Recovery from Waste (RRfW) programme coordinates a co-creation process for a shared vision and approach for sustainable waste and resource management in the UK.

Last week we introduced the co-creation methods and results on effective collaboration between government and academic partners. This week we discuss preliminary results on policy and regulatory approaches in support of the transition towards more sustainable waste and resource management. How can government support a move away from end-of-pipe approaches and maximise the value created from resources whilst keeping them in the economy for as long as possible?

We are looking for further input from governmental partners and other interested stakeholders. Are the presented approaches sufficient to support the transition process? Are any policy and regulatory approaches missing? Do you have a preference for any of the presented approaches? Please leave a comment or contact us directly.

Policy recommendations

Policy efforts should focus on eradicating waste. Engagement of government partners has highlighted five focal areas for policy development so far:

  • Longer-term policies that are stable and predictable, enabling investment and business model innovation.
  • Focus policies on resources and resource efficiency rather than waste and waste reduction.
  • Build on the EU Circular Economy Strategy to maintain integrity with EU resource, waste and circular economy policies.
  • Prioritise reduction of single use and superfluous products/packaging as well as the use of hazardous materials in products when it poses barriers to recycling.
  • Develop waste infrastructure in support of decarbonisation agenda.
    Regulatory approaches

Turning to regulatory approaches, a combination of incentives and regulations were suggested to focus efforts on the higher levels of the waste hierarchy.

The overriding idea is that each level of the waste hierarchy needs its own mix of incentives and regulations, with more ‘carrot’ or ‘save as you recycle’ approaches towards the higher levels and more use of regulatory ‘sticks’ or taxation to prevent resources moving down the hierarchy (see figure above).

Regulatory instruments

Six groups of regulatory instruments were discussed:

  1. Taxation and tax breaks, for example to support reuse and repair, and to internalise elements of resource value that are currently largely externalised from the costs of materials, components and products, such as the environmental impacts of extracting natural resources or the end-of-life impacts when products become waste.
  2. Reporting to identify and understand resource flows, especially at higher levels of the waste hierarchy such as reuse. Reporting could be incentivised by tax breaks.
  3. Extended producer and consumer responsibility – Extended producer responsibility (EPR) could target specific waste/ resource streams, supporting schemes to make polluters pay and motivate designing wastes out of the system. EPR should be combined with more consumer responsibility, to improve the quality of waste resources feeding into the waste and reprocessing industry.
  4. Product bans or product standards – Product bans would be a strong instrument to intervene. However, such bans may be contentious and the alternative would be products standards and inclusion of environmental and social externalities in economic value.
  5. Mandatory recycling regimes – In support of extended producer and consumer responsibility, markets could be further directed by mandating recycling regimes. Such mandates would improve the quality of recycled resources, essential to realising the circular economy.
  6. Waste Prevention Act – Waste and resource management can play an important role in carbon reductions. Especially waste prevention could contribute to such extent that it should not be just voluntary and, instead, should be embedded in a Waste Prevention Act.
Regulatory instruments reviewed.

Reconsidering existing policies and regulations

When introducing the regulatory approaches above, reconsideration of the existing policy and regulatory framework is also necessary:

  • Adjust regulation to support the closing of resource loops. The regulatory system should become less centred on waste and focus more on valuing resources.
  • Realign support for competing incentivised supply chains, to ward off perverse incentives that for example prioritise energy recovery over waste prevention.
  • Focus regulatory efforts more on those who can actually (pay for) change in waste and resource management. For example, local councils carry responsibility for recycling but austerity measures cause difficulty to achieve obligations.

Finally, education and support play an important role in enabling change in waste and resource management practices. For example, the LGA is well positioned to provide information to local councils about circular economy and best practice, supporting them in realising waste infrastructure and cultural change. Moreover, government actors in power to lead on waste and resource management, as well as businesses, would benefit from understanding the circular economy and the opportunities it offers. Academia should play a key role in providing consistent, credible and impartial education materials on all areas of waste and resource management.

We value your feedback!

The preliminary results introduced above will be included in a publication, which will be finalised from the middle of February. Please share your views before 17. February 2017 to be included in the article.

NB Should you wish to use the presented results above, please reference as: Anne P.M. Velenturf et al. (Forthcoming) Co-producing a Vision and Approach for the Transition towards a Circular Economy: Perspectives from Government Partners.

This article was originally published on LinkedIn on 3rd February 2017.